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The economy and culture of Shanrong Nationality

Updated: 2014-12-30 09:50:41

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The Spring and Autumn and Warring States periods saw Shanrong nationality frequently push deeply into the border area of its neighboring states (Yan State on the south, Qi State on the east, Zhao State on the west) to loot, relying on the mightiness of his national power. Shanrong turned out to be a nuisance for years to these three marquisates, especially a big trouble to Yan. In ancient literature, the records of "Shanrong invaded Qi across Yan" and "Shangrong troubled Yan" were common occurrences. The growth of Shanrong formed a big threat to Yan, who had been incessantly invaded and looted by the north minorities, with Shanrong as the leading force. It caused a huge damage to the production of the agriculture and husbandry and people's living. It followed that the capital of Yan, by the time of the rule of Marquis of Huan(697bc-691bc), cannot but be moved to the northwest of Linyi, where Xiongxian situates now in Hebei Province. The power center of Yan moved southward gradually and the state power became weaker and weaker.

At the 27th year under the rule of Duke of Zhuang(664BC),Shanrong intruded into Yan with large troops. The latter resorted urgently to Qi who under the rule of Duke of Huang finally rescued Yan by defeating Shanrong in the north and relieved the north area of Yan from the chain of Shanrong.

Remains of Shanrong in the Beijing area during the Spring and Autumn and Warring States periods has been found to focus on the north mountainous area �Cthe area located in the Jundu Hill, north of Badaling in Yanqing County.

From August,1985 to december,1987, the operators of cultural relics from Beijing disinhumed more than five hundreds tombs of Shanrong during the Spring and Autumn and Warring States periods in the three places of Yuhuangmiao, Guchengcun and Hulugou in Yanqing county and more than eight thousand Shanrong-distinctive relics of variety came to light. These remains and the relics play an important role in the historical research of Shanrong in the Beijing area.

There was a considerable variety of bronze wares, including weapons, instruments, decorations, harness and containers, etc. Two cultural factors found expression in the bronze containers made in Shanrong. One was materialized by the wares typical of Shanrong indigenes, such as the crude bronze pod with double handles and the three-legged cup with bended animal heads and ear-like loop handles, whereas the other was materialized by the wares of Yan and mainstream culture, such as the copper with the lines of snake-like animal and the bronze plate with cloud-like lines. A picture can be drawn of the contacts and interactions between the two types of cultures and according to the unearthed wares, we can reach safe conclusion that the then Shanrong was in the Bronze Age and lived mainly a nomadic life.

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