Ishan is a major Islamic sect in China's Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. It came into being in the latter half of the 16th century, earlier than the formation of Menhuan in other regions. The various Islamic missionaries from Central Asia absorbed the traditional cultures of the Uygur people and other peoples and finally this sect emerged after a long period of evolution. This sect is named after the title of its leader, which means a perfect man.
Strictly speaking, Ishan is not an organized religious body. It is divided into many branches and has no uniform creeds and rites. The various branches gradually formed their own religious views and rites, and only kept the most important creeds and superficial forms. Generally speaking, they have something in common. The first and most primary characteristic is that tutorship is applied; second, they all have their own organizations in which they can establish a strict subordination system; third, they emphasize religious cultivation, both physically and mentally; and they hold Zikr rites to extol Allah, saints, or admire heaven, and so on.
Judged from its forms and contents, Ishan is a result of zealous Muslim belief, and is the direct result of Uygurized Sufism.