Xilinguole National Nature Reserve lies in the boundaries of Xilinguole City, the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. Covering a total area of 10,786 square kilometers, Xilinguole National Nature Reserve was established in 1985, the first grassland nature reserve in China, and joined the International Man and Biosphere Reserve Network in 1987. As a matter of fact, with its typicality, Xilinguole Grassland attracted great attention from botanists at home and abroad as early as 1930s.
It is obviously mid-temperate continental; it is windy, dry and frigid. The glacier period can last 5 months and its frigid period lasts 7 months, and therefore, it is the coldest zone in North China. The annual temperature averages 0℃-4℃. In January, the coldest month in the Reserve, the temperature averages 20℃below zero. In July, the hottest month here, the temperature averages 21℃. The absolute highest temperature is 39.9℃while the absolute lowest temperature is 42.4℃. Its annual sunshine amounts to 2,100-3,200 hours with a sunshine rate of 64-73%. On an average, there are 90-130 frost-free days. The annual average precipitation is 140-400 millimeters with a decrease from the southeast to northwest. It mainly rains in July, August and September. The average snowfall amounts to 8-15 millimeters during the period from November to next March.
The Reserve has unique ecosystems, which represents basic characteristics of grassland bio-communities and reflects structure and eco-processes of grassland ecosystem on Inner Mongolia Plateau. It slopes from the south to the north and there are more hills in southeast with crisscrossed basins. Xilinguole Grassland is the extending section from the west ofthe Greater Hinggan Mountainsand east of Yinshan Mountains. In the northwest it is smooth terrain with hills dotted here and there. The Reserve is 800-1,800 meters above sea level and its highest peak, Gurugesula Peak, has an elevation of 1,957 meters.