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Qing Dynasty

Celestial globe
Exactly speaking, the Qing Dynasty lasted from 1644 until the founding of the Republic of China in 1911. After the Opium War of 1840, the Qing entered a semi-colonial and semi-feudal society, which can be divided into two periods.

Golden saucer and golden spoon
Throughout the reigns of Emperors Kangxi, Yongzheng and Qianlong, the Qing reached its peak. This was known as the Kang Qian Sheng Shi (flourishing age from Kang to Qian, 1662-1759). During this period, Emperor Kangxi recaptured Taiwan and put down the rebellion of the Zhun Ga'er tribe. With a vast territory, the Qing gradually gained stability, which enabled a steady development of economy, culture, industry and commerce.

Wooden carving
In the late years of Emperor Qianlong's reign (circa 1792), the Qing Dynasty began its decline, with intensified social conflicts and continuous uprisings. The corrupt regime was best illustrated by the deeds of He Shen, who amassed a huge fortune by taking bribes and exploiting people. This led to the defeat of the Qing during the Opium War. With the opening of more and more coastal trade ports after the war, China's sovereignty became encroached by foreign powers. Under such humiliating circumstances, patriots never ceased to pursue independence. Uprisings led by Sun Yat-sen overthrew the Qing Dynasty and set up the Republic of China.