A Chinese flame-thrower in action. Gunpowder-impregnated fuses for flame-throwers were the first use of gunpowder in warfare, before it was made with sufficient saltpeter to enable it to explode.
An illustration of a Chinese flame-thrower, published in 1601, redrawn from an encyclopedia of 1044. The Chinese invented the continuous flame-thrower in the tenth century. Here we see the tank standing on four feet, with the pump and ejector above it. Because the Chinese invention of a double-acting Piston-bellows was used with this device, a continuous stream of flame could be emitted. The metal used was cartridge-quality brass.